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This contrasts with 1. Although the prostitutes in this study do not constitute a probability sample of Colorado Springs prostitutes, our experience indicates that they are demographically and behaviorally representative of those working between and Their high level of reported activity is consistent with field prostitutes phone numbers in new york of crack-addicted prostitutes We doubled the 6-month mean to obtain an estimated mean of male partners in the last 12 months for these women.
In two different parts of the Colorado Springs interview, heterosexual men were asked about contact with prostitutes in the last 5 years, with the second question referring to prostitutes in Colorado Springs only. For example, in the GSS between andthere was one prostitute woman and she reported between 21 and male sexual partners in the last 12 months. In the NHSLS, 7 of the 13 heterosexual men who admitted to contact with prostitutes in the last year acknowledged this only in response to the second question on the topic the two questions were presented in separate SAQs.
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s of partners reported by prostitutes are not likely to be overestimates. In any event, prostitution would still explain the disparity.
Following T. For both surveys, we defined heterosexuals as those who reported only opposite-sex partners for a given recall period. We use data from national sex surveys and studies of prostitutes and their clients in the United States to examine sampling bias as an explanation for this disparity.
To compensate for this shortfall, we added prostitutes' expected partnerships that were not reported in the national surveys to heterosexual women's reports and computed a prostitution-adjusted mean of partners for heterosexual women. Detailed calculations for all analyses are presented in the Appendixwhich is published as supplementary material on the PNAS web site, www. The observed of partnerships reported by prostitute women in the national surveys falls far prostitutes phone numbers in new york of the expected.
Prostitution's role in the discrepancy is not readily apparent because men are reluctant to acknowledge that their reported partners include prostitutes. For the latter estimate, we assumed that the rates of entry into and exit from prostitution were equal for the Colorado Springs cohort of prostitutes, which implies that these women were, on average, halfway through their prostitution careers Because prostitute women in Colorado Springs have a mean career length of 5 years 15prostitute women in this sample most likely worked as prostitutes for only 2.
These observations suggest that the primary source of underreporting contact with prostitutes may be men who do not acknowledge being clients but still report a large of partners that likely includes many prostitutes. Eleven of the clients acknowledged prostitute partners only in response to the second question, and 2 additional men who did not report contact with prostitutes were known to be clients from prostitutes' naming them specifically as clients in another part of the interview.
Second, prostitute women's work schedule usually beginning in the late afternoon and often stretching into the early morning 22 conflicts with the GSS interviewers' schedule weekdays after p. Across the world, probability sample household surveys of adult sexual behavior show that men report substantially more prostitutes phone numbers in new york partners than women do 1— This finding is puzzling, because in a closed population of heterosexuals, men and women actually have the same of sexual partners in the aggregate.
We used data based on responses to questions in paper self-administered questionnaires SAQsexcept as noted. We opted for the more conservative estimate based on doubling the 6-month mean. Furthermore, available empirical information indicates that prostitution also can for the discrepancies in the British 5 and Ivorian 29 surveys for recall periods between 1 and 5 years see supplementary material.
With these estimates of the national prevalence of prostitute women and their of male sex partners, we calculated the of prostitutes and their of partnerships expected to be reported for the last 12 months and 5 years in the GSS and NHSLS. One of the most reliable and perplexing findings from surveys of sexual behavior is that men report substantially more sexual partners than women do. Responses to repeated questioning about involvement in prostitution indicate men's reluctance to acknowledge contact with prostitutes.
Prostitution and the sex discrepancy in reported of sexual partners
Inthe of men from the United States who traveled overseas is balanced almost perfectly by the of men from overseas countries who traveled to the United States Foreign men visiting the United States also tend to be younger than men from the United States traveling overseas. This result is not likely due to undersampling of clients, as clients do not seem to be underrepresented in household surveys.
For the month recall period, one bisexual prostitute woman not included in our analyses reported more than partners. To assess how much of the discrepancy prostitution can explain, we estimated the prevalence of prostitute women and their of partners and then compared these estimates with observations in the GSS and NHSLS. Our calculations for the 5-year recall period followed those for the month recall period except that we i defined prostitutes as heterosexual women who reported ever having received payment or paid for sex GSS or been paid by a man for sex NHSLS and were younger than age 45 sometime in the last 5 years; ii multiplied the expected prostitutes phone numbers in new york prostitutes' partnerships by 5; and iii for the NHSLS, corrected for partnerships between prostitutes and men who were age 55—59 in the last 5 years but older than 59 at the time of the NHSLS, based on data from the Colorado Springs study reported by clients of prostitutes.
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Prostitution allows men to accrue new partners at a higher rate than nonprostitute women, which causes the unadjusted ratios to increase with longer recall periods. Unadjusted and prostitution-adjusted ratios of the of sexual partners reported by heterosexual men to the reported by heterosexual women. In both surveys, two questions ask about the of sexual partners in the last 12 months and 5 years asked in the GSS sincerespectively.
These facts imply that the of sexual partnerships commercial and otherwise men from the United States have in other countries is likely canceled out by the of partnerships foreign men have in the United States. The 23 perestimate reflects the — period overall as well as annual prevalences observed between and Studies of prostitute prevalence in other North American communities that are less typical of the United States demographically indicate higher estimates see supplementary material. We then used this prostitution-adjusted mean for recomputing the estimated of partnerships for heterosexual women in the United States.
Although the population of the United States is not closed, we treated it as if it were, given the consistency of the measured sex discrepancy in countries from each major region of the world prostitutes phone numbers in new york at different levels of development.
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Consistent with prior research, the discrepancy ratios are larger for the 5-year recall period than for the month recall period. We find that prostitute women are underrepresented in the national surveys. These 10 other studies of prostitute women in 17 different communities involving a total of 2, women either did not include representative samples of prostitutes or used recall periods less appropriate for estimating the of partners in a year. However, her prostitutes phone numbers in new york of the lifetime of reported partners is undermined by the use of point and annual, rather than lifetime, prevalences of prostitutes, and thus does not adjust for the cumulative of partners that all prostitutes from multiple cohorts had over respondents' lifetimes.
This doubled figure is consistent with an estimate derived from prostitutes' reported of male partners in the last 5 years. To measure the sex discrepancy, we first weighted responses by the of adults in respondents' households to compensate for the fact that persons in large households were less likely to be interviewed only one person in a sampled household was interviewed. The studies of prostitutes and their clients, however, often involved some juveniles and individuals over age For the month recall period, we estimated the adult prostitute prevalence rate to be Because studies cited in the supplementary material show that virtually all working prostitutes are under age 45, we computed the of women aged 18—44 in a survey expected to be prostitutes from this adult prevalence rate, census figures, and a survey sample's age distribution.
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Potterat et al. In prior research, the discrepancy could not be eliminated by removing those respondents who reported involvement in prostitution or by reducing men's of partners by an estimate of admitted clients' of prostitute partners 21329 These are consistent with ours and can be explained by heterosexual men underreporting their contact with prostitutes.
Indeed, clients in the Colorado Springs study and the NHSLS who admitted contact with prostitutes only after being asked twice reported as many partners on average as did clients who admitted contact with prostitutes when first asked. Our analyses of the GSS are based on data from to combined.
Furthermore, prostitute women in the United States tend to be quite mobile 1523 and have high mortality Prostitution's role in explaining the discrepancy is not readily apparent because heterosexual men underreport contact with prostitutes.
Other research in the United States during the past 25 years tends to indicate higher s of partners for prostitute women, but these seem to derive from methodological features of these studies see supplementary material. No nonprostitute woman reported more than partners for either recall period in the national surveys.
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In a probability sample of year-olds in Detroit, the sex discrepancy ratio in reported of lifetime sexual partners is 1. Moreover, the excess partners reported by adult men cannot be ed for by partnerships with adolescent females. Response options include 1, 2, 3, 4, 5—10, 11—20, 21—, and more than In the GSS, some respondents answered these questions in an open-ended fashion.
Because of slight differences in the s of men and women in the population at large and differences in the proportions of men and women who are heterosexual, estimates must be obtained at the United States population level rather than simply by relying on the surveys' sample means for men's and women's s of partners. Once their undersampling and very high s of sexual partners are factored in, the discrepancy disappears.
Methodological experiments involving audio computer-assisted self-interviewing ACASIwhich is thought to promote accurate reporting, also point to men's underreporting contact with prostitutes. We estimated prostitutes' of partners from our prospective study of the sexual, drug-using, and social networks of persons including prostitutes pd to be at high risk for HIV infection in Colorado Springs We recruited respondents from the county sexually transmitted diseases clinic, Prostitutes phone numbers in new york testing site, drug treatment program, and outreach activities, and then enrolled some of respondents' sexual, drug-using, and social contacts through a link-tracing de.
The estimation procedure took into prostitutes' mobility by weighting women proportional to the fraction of a year that they worked in Colorado Springs. There are several reasons why prostitutes, especially those with typical s of partners, are unlikely to be represented in household surveys in the United States.
Likewise, the discrepancy for the 5-year recall period could also possibly be eliminated with similar assumptions about the two bisexual prostitute women who reported more than partners. We then computed the expected total of partnerships reported by prostitutes by multiplying the expected of prostitutes bythe estimated mean of partners for prostitutes in a year. These cross-sectional surveys involved multistage area probability samples of adults living in United States households the NHSLS included adults under age 60 only.
In our analysis, we evaluated sampling bias related to prostitution as an explanation for the disparity.
Other types of sampling bias cannot for the sex discrepancy in reported of partners. The Colorado Springs Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area during this period had demographic characteristics and sexually transmitted disease rates similar to those of the United States as a whole. All calculations for these adjustments are based on household-size-weighted data.
Explanations for this discrepancy prostitutes phone numbers in new york to either sex-linked reporting bias or sampling bias. If she had an above-average of partners for a prostitute and primarily male partners, her report might eliminate most or all of the discrepancy. In sum, prostitutes are underrepresented in national household sex surveys, and their undersampling can for the sex discrepancy in reported s of sexual partners.
In merging information from different sources, we sometimes excluded observations from particular studies or adjusted estimates of key parameters as detailed below to ensure that the age ranges of respondents and partnerships reported in the different studies were comparable. For each recall period, we recoded open-ended responses to the closed-ended response. Einon 18 addressed and dismissed the prostitution explanation for the discrepancy in the British household survey 5. This ratio would need to be substantially less than 1 for adolescent females to for a ificant share of adult men's excess partners.